布莱恩·伊诺出生于1848年。他是英国音乐人、作曲家、制作人和音乐理论家。他是氛围音乐的先锋。常为U2乐团担任唱片制作。伊诺在艺校学习时，接触到了简约主义，并得到启发发现了简约音乐。但甚至直至他加入Roxy Music乐队担任键盘手和合成器手时，他还并基本没有接受过音乐教育。在Roxy Music成功后，伊诺因无法忍受与乐队主唱Bryan Ferry的争吵而离队。在发行了三张专辑后，他开始接触实验音乐，并创造了氛围音乐。
1. The genius of Eno is in removing the idea of genius. His work is rooted in the power of collaboration within systems: instructions, rules, and self-imposed limits. His methods are a rebuke to the assumption that a project can be powered by one person’s intent, or that intent is even worth worrying about. To this end, Eno has come up with words like “scenius,” which describes the power generated by a group of artists who gather in one place at one time. (“Genius is individual, scenius is communal,” Eno told the Guardian, in 2010.) It suggests that the quality of works produced in a certain time and place is more indebted to the friction between the people on hand than to the work of any single artist. Ambient Genius http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2014/07/07/ambient-genius
2. On one side of Eno's scale diagram, he writes "control"; on the other "surrender". "We've tended to dignify the controlling end of the spectrum," he says. "We have Nobel prizes for that end." His idea is that control is what we generally believe the greats – Shakespeare, Picasso, Einstein, Wagner – were about. Such people, the argument goes, controlled their chosen fields, working in isolation, never needing any creative input from others. As for surrender, that idea has become debased: it's come to mean what the rest of us do when confronted by a work of genius. "We've tended to think of the surrender end as a luxury, a nice thing you add to your life when you've done the serious work of getting a job, getting your pension sorted out. I'm saying that's all wrong."
He pauses, then asks: "I don't know if you've ever read much about the history of shipbuilding?" Not a word. "Old wooden ships had to be constantly caulked up because they leaked. When technology improved, and they could make stiffer ships because of a different way of holding boards together, they broke up. So they went back to making ships that didn't fit together properly, ships that had flexion. The best vessels surrendered: they allowed themselves to be moved by the circumstances.
"Control and surrender have to be kept in balance. That's what surfers do – take control of the situation, then be carried, then take control. In the last few thousand years, we've become incredibly adept technically. We've treasured the controlling part of ourselves and neglected the surrendering part." Eno considers all his recent art to be a rebuttal to this attitude. "I want to rethink surrender as an active verb," he says. "It's not just you being escapist; it's an active choice. I'm not saying we've got to stop being such controlling beings. I'm not saying we've got to be back-to-the-earth hippies. I'm saying something more complex."
The point is that a cappella harnesses the creative intelligence of a whole group. By contrast, says Eno, high art is about separating geniuses from foot soldiers. "A cappella subverts that: it's highly composed music but there's no composer. You can't say who wrote it. You can't say how it came about. And that's how music has been for me. I hardly ever go into the studio with a work complete in my head. It emerges from communal activity."
Most people, he adds, forget the importance of the drummer Jonathan "Sugarfoot" Moffett when they assess Michael Jackson's genius. "I'm convinced Sugarfoot's kick-drum technique is as important to Michael Jackson's music as anything else, even Quincy Jones [Jackson's celebrated producer]. It's invidious to separate each contribution. It's not individuals who create things, it's scenes – a community of people."
Eno has a word for this: scenius. What does it mean? "Genius is individual, scenius is communal."
Surrender. It's Brian Eno http://www.theguardian.com/music/2010/apr/28/brian-eno-brighton-festival
3. Brian Eno had some interesting comments on genius vs “scenius” at the Sydney Luminous Festival:
MORE DARK THAN SHARK: Brian, could you reiterate your word "scenius" and perhaps tell us how, in times to come, we might evaluate that seed you're trying to plant?
BRIAN ENO: So he's asking about the word "scenius" - and I'll expand a little bit on that word.
So, as I told you, I was an art student and, like all art students, I was encouraged to believe that there were a few great figures like Picasso and Kandinsky, Rembrandt and Giotto and so on who sort-of appeared out of nowhere and produced artistic revolution.
As I looked at art more and more, I discovered that that wasn't really a true picture. What really happened was that there was sometimes very fertile scenes involving lots and lots of people - some of them artists, some of them collectors, some of them curators, thinkers, theorists, people who were fashionable and knew what the hip things were - all sorts of people who created a kind of ecology of talent. And out of that ecology arose some wonderful work. The period that I was particularly interested in, 'round about the Russian revolution, shows this extremely well. So I thought that originally those few individuals who'd survived in history - in the sort-of "Great Man" theory of history - they were called "geniuses". But what I thought was interesting was the fact that they all came out of a scene that was very fertile and very intelligent. So I came up with this word "scenius" - and scenius is the intelligence of a whole... operation or group of people. And I think that's a more useful way to think about culture, actually. I think that - let's forget the idea of "genius" for a little while, let's think about the whole ecology of ideas that give rise to good new thoughts and good new work.
Pixar的Inside Out又火了！这个公司为什么能持续不断地保持创新，部部作品都叫好又叫座？哈佛商学院教授Linda Hill在《Collective Genius》研究包括了Pixar、Google、HCL等在内的７个国家、12个行业的创新企业，指出：
@颖生-Helen 今年SXSW的主题演讲人Austin Kleon建议，别执着于成为独孤天才，给自己构建一个群体，成为“场天才”（Scenius），这是音乐家Brian Eno造的词，指在人群的“场”（Scene）中激发创意。KK曾指出，培育场天才有4大要素：群落个体彼此欣赏、快速交流新工具和技巧、成功的网络效应、场外的容忍度。
看了这条微博之后，我找到了一篇讨论“场天才”（Scenius）的双语文章Kevin Kelly and Steven Johnson on Where Ideas Come
另外一位友人 @阳志平1949 接着指出：“创造力研究新流派，看重创作的即兴与协奏，推荐图书yes to mess http://t.cn/8sJLkOF 与zig zag”。
查询了一下这两本图书，发现ZIG ZAG的作者就是Keith Sawyer。我最近才从《剑桥学习科学手册》微课知道他。他就是这个学习科学手册的主编，专注于研究创造力。
例如这篇：Vygotsky on Collective Creativity http://keithsawyer.wordpress.com/2014/03/25/vygotsky-on-collective-creativity/
还有这篇：A Home for Creativity Researchers